Have you ever felt like your moods are controlling you? There may be some truth to that. Chemicals produced in your brain, serotonin and dopamine, actually control your mood.
What does serotonin do?
In adequate amounts, serotonin makes you feel calm, happy, relaxed and satisfied. Dopamine is responsible for feelings of elation and gives you the ability to focus.
Low serotonin is the most common cause of depression, has been linked to anxiety and affects appetite. The most commonly prescribed anti-depressant drugs are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibiters (SSRIs). SSRIs inhibit reuptake of serotonin in the brain. This causes an increase of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, a small space between brain cells.
Stress and serotonin production
Cortisol, the stress hormone, is the most common culprit for low seratonin production. Serotonin is made from the amino acid tryptophan, which produces melatonin (sleep hormone). Cortisol increases production of enzymes that turn tryptophan into proteins, as well as enzymes that cause serotonin to break down. With decreased amounts of tryptophan available for serotonin and melatonin production, sleep is interrupted. Lack of sleep contributes to stress – and so the cycle continues.
Feeling tired is just the tip of the iceberg after a sleepless night. Long-term effects from lack of sleep include:
- lower productivity and immunity
- feeling dizzy and light-headed
- increased irritability
- increase risk of heart disease and metabolic syndrome
- increased risk of suicide (in extreme cases)
- sleep apnea increases prevalence of:
- depression (22%)
- anxiety (17%)
- post-traumatic stress disorder (12%)
- psychosis (5%)
Don’t cheat yourself! If you don’t have trouble sleeping but choose to stay up late, you should note that this can also have a significant impact on your health and mood.
When your body is working as it should, cortisol levels are higher in the morning and afternoon, and slowly decrease toward the evening. In individuals with hyperarousal, cortisol levels elevate at night. Increased cortisol production disrupts serotonin prod